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Arabic dialects

Arabic dialects

Arabic is characterized by its spread and the diversity of its dialects and that's the outgrowth of the multiplicity of Arab cultures and the difference of its environments and spatial nature. The ancient Arab used to speak a single unified language, Modern Standard Arabic, which is the language of the Quran. But after that Arabic has been changed and dialects have been spread because of mixing with non-Arab after the Islamic conquests. The Bedouin dialects differ from the urban dialects in all Arab countries. These dialects are informal, so they have not been written or recorded only recently. Most of their use is oral without grammatical rules or dictionaries. Arabic dialects can be outlined:

1. Oriental dialects; ▪ Egyptian (Maṣri) Arabic.

▪ Ṣaʿīdi Arabic.

▪ Axanderanah Arabic.

2. Sudanese dialects; ▪ Sudanese Arabic (Sūdānī)

▪ Chadian Arabic

▪ Juba Arabic .

3. Levantine dialects; ▪ Lebanese Arabic

▪ Syrian Arabic

▪ Jordanian Arabic

▪ Palestinian Arabic.

4. Mesopotamian dialects or Iraqi Arabic; ▪ Baghdadi Arabic.

▪ Basra [Basrāwi Arabic].

▪ Anbar [Anbāri Arabic].

▪ Mosul [Mosuli Arabic].

▪ Ahwaz [Ahwazi Arabic].

5. Arabian Peninsula dialects; ▪ Gulf Arabic (ḵalījī); including [Emirati, Bahraini, Qatari, and Kuwaiti Arabic]

▪ Saudi Arabic; including [Najdi, Hejāzi, Tihāmiyyah, and Hassāwi Arabic]

▪ Yemeni Arabic; including [Bahrāni, Omani, and Shihhi Arabic].

6. Maghrebi dialects; ▪ Main Maghrebi dialects; including [Moroccan Arabic, Algerian Arabic, Libyan Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, Ḥassānīya Arabic, and Andalusian Arabic]

▪ Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects; including [Jebli Arabic, Jijel Arabic, Sicilian Arabic, and Maltese Arabic].

7. Main Bedouin dialects; ▪ Libyan Arabic ▪ Ḥassānīya Arabic ▪ Kalījī Arabic ▪ Najdi Arabic ▪ Algerian Saharan Arabic.

8. Dialects based on Arabic; ▪ Nubi Arabic ▪ Juba Arabic.

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